Invented by master paper-makers from  Fabriano in XIII century,  watermarks from   Fabriano have always been recognised and appreciated as a symbol of guarantee and certification worldwide. Watermarks are manufactured during the making of paper when the pulp is still very wet.  The pulp which is then poured over a framed wire-cloth used for the making of paper, feltrates forming marked reliefs left by the drawing (negative side or counter side of the watermark drawing). The fibres of the paper, naturally bond filling in the high and low relief features of the drawing, thus creating deposits of the material which are almost invisible to the naked eye but which are perceptible when held against the light and difficult to reproduce. Watermarks today still represent the most widespread , effective and basic security features against counterfeiting of  value security papers and banknotes.watermark

Mould made watermark

This watermark, obtained on the cylinder machine,  distinguishes itself from the others for its wide range of changing colour hues from light to dark. It  is the most difficult to counterfeit and can be utilised in many fields.

Electrotype watermark

Electro-type is a watermark in light  where the hue is ‘strained’ so as  to create a strong contrast with its surrounding surface. This allows it to be easily read but difficult to be forged.

Window watermark

The “sewing” effect created by the security thread which ‘comes in and out’ of the surface of the paper is obtained thanks to this special process,  which transforms the surface of the paper into a delicate transparent veil which covers and highlights the security thread at regular intervals.

Fourdrinier watermark

This watermark is produced by ‘flat’ technology machines during the making of paper, the contrasts in the hues are created by the different thicknesses of the fibres in the pulp mixture.  As compared to a mould-made watermark,  the hue contrasts are less rich and evident, however it still remains one of the most widespread and effective means against counterfeiting of value security paper.